En posant une acception aussi large que possible de l’anthropologie, l’article invite à se rappeler à quoi servent en réalité les théories. The guides to anthropological theories and approaches presented here have been prepared by anthropology (and other) graduate students of the University of Alabama under the direction of Dr. Michael D. Murphy.. From Encyclopedia of Social and Cultural Anthropology Broadly speaking, ‘functionalism’ refers to a range of theories in the human sciences, all of which provide explanations of phenomena in terms of the function, or purpose, they purportedly serve. Ruth Benedict originated the controversial concept of patterns of culture, which combined anthropology with sociology, psychology, and philosophy. It is concluded that anthropology has always acquired its vitality by being critically ‘conjunctural’, and must be ultimately and necessarily a strategic cross‐disciplinary theoretical compromise. Enter your email address below and we will send you your username, If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username, Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, I have read and accept the Wiley Online Library Terms and Conditions of Use, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9655.2010.01631.x. Learn about our remote access options. All four areas must collect data and find a way to interpret the data collected. Assuming a framework that understands anthropology in its broadest sense, this article invites us to remind ourselves what theories are actually supposed to do. Keywords: anthropology, theory, anthropological theory 1.0. US anthropologist who established the practice of fieldwork in anthropology and – with her account of adolescence in Samoa – popularized the idea within her own country that there are alternatives to the American way of life. Assuming a framework that understands anthropology in its broadest sense, this article invites us to remind ourselves what theories are actually supposed to do. answer such questions as, why do people behave the way they do? The data would be useless to any anthropologist without any meaning. What makes a theory ‘anthropological’ beyond it being a theory that anthropologists use? This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. As we move from the base to the tip of the pyramid, so our explanations and interpretation of data must become increasingly simple to accommodate the forms of measurement that each level demands. This was achieved partly through postmodern critique, … Note Dump! Anthropological theory changes constantly as new data comes forth. It tends to concentrate on surfaces rather than depths, to blur the distinctions between high and low culture, and as a whole to challenge a wide variety of traditional cultural values. Anthropology explores the diversity of humankind both in the past and present, Ruth Fulton Benedict (1887-1948): Topic Page, Claude Lévi-Strauss (1908-2009): Topic Page. It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results. Learn more. Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. En progressant de la base au sommet de la pyramide, les attentes et l’interprétation des données doivent devenir de plus en plus simples, afin de prendre en compte les formes de mesure exigées à chaque niveau. Logo Historians of anthropology often trace the birth of Anthropology to the 16th –century encounters between Europeans and native peoples in Africa and the Americas. Assuming a framework that understands anthropology in its broadest sense, this article invites us to remind ourselves what theories are actually supposed to do. And, how do we account for human. In her 1934 book Patterns of Culture, Benedict proposed her holistic theory of culture to explain why certain personalities and types were valued in one society while discouraged in another. Introduction In the academic arena, anthropology is considered as a relatively new discipline as its major development mainly happened in the nineteenth and the twentieth centuries. The discipline of anthropology, beginning with these early social theories arose largely in response to this encounter between cultures (Winthrop 1991:109). Theories in anthropology and 'anthropological theory' 389 leading to a 'loss of vision' was, some would say, the failure of the 'social science project' itself, of the positivist laws-and-causes 'social physics' kind. He was considered one of the most notable British anthropologists after the Second World War. Evans-Pritchard (1902-1973) studied history at Oxford and anthropology at the University of London. Data is then interpreted with the use of theories. Creationists say of evolution that it is ‘only a theory’, meaning that it is not entirely believable.
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